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Date

November 8, 2018

California Makes Cage-Free Hens a State Law by Approving Proposition 12

California voters overwhelmingly approved a measure Tuesday requiring that all eggs sold in the state come from cage-free hens by 2022. Proposition 12 also bans the sale of pork and veal in California from farm animals raised in cages that… Continue Reading →

Ragweed may expand its range northward with climate change

A new predictive model developed by an ecologist at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and a climate scientist at the University of Washington suggests that climate change may allow common ragweed to extend its growing range northward and into major… Continue Reading →

Tiny structures’ construction, drip by drip

Popping the top on house paint usually draws people to look inside the can. But Princeton researchers have turned their gaze upward, to the underside of the lid, where it turns out that pattern of droplets could inspire new ways… Continue Reading →

Baby ‘boom’ and ‘bust’: Nations’ rates of childbirth vary significantly

Ninety-one nations are not producing enough children to maintain their current populations, while the opposite is true in 104 countries where high birth rates are driving population increases, according to a new scientific study. Total fertility rates (TFR), a summary… Continue Reading →

Waking sleeping plants with plasmas

Commercial crops like grapes, peaches, berries and flower bulbs all go dormant in the winter, essentially sleeping through the seasonal cold before they resume growing, flowering and fruiting again in the warmer months. A critical concern for commercial farmers is… Continue Reading →

Study tracks severe bleaching events on a Pacific coral reef over past century

As climate change causes ocean temperatures to rise, coral reefs worldwide are experiencing mass bleaching events and die-offs. For many, this is their first encounter with extreme heat. However for some reefs in the central Pacific, heatwaves caused by El… Continue Reading →

Social media use increases depression and loneliness, study finds

The link between the two has been talked about for years, but a causal connection had never been proven. For the first time, University of Pennsylvania research based on experimental data connects Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram use to decreased well-being…. Continue Reading →

Moving the motivation meter

Two novel drugs kickstart motivation in rats suffering from apathy and a lack of oomph, UConn researchers reported at the Society for Neuroscience conference in San Diego on Nov. 5. Apathy steals the excitement from life. It's a feeling of… Continue Reading →

Creating better devices: The etch stops here

A team of multi-disciplinary scientists and engineers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new, more precise, method to create nanoscale-size electromechanical devices. Their research findings are published in Nature Communications. "In the last five years, there… Continue Reading →

Millions in danger of food insecurity due to severe Caribbean droughts

Climate change is impacting the Caribbean, with millions facing increasing food insecurity and decreasing freshwater availability as droughts become more likely across the region, according to new Cornell University research in Geophysical Research Letters. Since 1950, the Caribbean region has… Continue Reading →

Giant leap toward personalized medicine helps eyes drain themselves

Purdue University researchers have invented a new smart drainage device to help patients with glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness in the world, as they try to save their eyesight. Glaucoma can be treated only with medications or surgical implants,… Continue Reading →

Anopheles mosquitoes could spread Mayaro virus in US, other diverse regions

Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are well known as primary vectors of malaria. But a new study suggests that Anopheles species, including some found in the United States, also are capable of carrying and transmitting an emerging pathogen, Mayaro virus,… Continue Reading →

Materials scientist creates fabric alternative to batteries for wearable devices

A major factor holding back development of wearable biosensors for health monitoring is the lack of a lightweight, long-lasting power supply. Now scientists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst led by materials chemist Trisha L. Andrew report that they have… Continue Reading →

Embryos ‘remember’ the chemicals that they encounter

We all start out as a clump of identical cells. As these cells divide and multiply, they gradually take on distinct identities, acquiring the traits necessary to form, for instance, muscle tissue, bone, or nerves. A recent study from Rockefeller… Continue Reading →

Do kitchen items shed antimicrobial nanoparticles after use?

Because of their antimicrobial and antifungal properties, silver nanoparticles measuring between one and 100 nanometers (billionth of a meter) in size, are being incorporated outside the United States into a variety of kitchen products known as food contact materials (FCMs)…. Continue Reading →

Tiny footprints, big discovery: Reptile tracks oldest ever found in Grand Canyon

A geology professor at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, has discovered that a set of 28 footprints left behind by a reptile-like creature 310 million years ago, are the oldest ever to be found in Grand Canyon National Park…. Continue Reading →

Navigating our thoughts: Fundamental principles of thinking

It is one of the most fundamental questions in neuroscience: How do humans think? Until recently, we seemed far from a conclusive answer. However, scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences (MPI CBS) in Leipzig,… Continue Reading →

Mobile workers in north Ethiopia vulnerable to visceral leishmaniasis transmission

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening disease transmitted by the bite of a sand fly. Between 3,700 to 7,400 people in Ethiopia are infected annually, particularly in the northern, agricultural regions with favorable climate and environment to sand fly vectors…. Continue Reading →

Flood dynamics increase population vulnerability to waterborne disease and climate

Diarrheal disease, a preventable and treatable illness, remains the second-leading cause of death in children under the age of 5 and a persistent public health threat in sub-Saharan Africa. Researchers have now uncovered how surface water dynamics may increase the… Continue Reading →

Warming waters caused rapid — and opposite — shifts in connected marine communities

Two connected marine ecosystems — the Eastern English Channel and Southern North Sea — experienced big and opposite changes in their fish communities over a 30-year period, according to researchers who report their findings in Current Biology on November 8…. Continue Reading →

How many calories do you burn? It depends on time of day

Researchers reporting in Current Biology on November 8 have made the surprising discovery that the number of calories people burn while at rest changes with the time of day. When at rest, people burn 10 percent more calories in the… Continue Reading →

Ancient DNA evidence reveals two unknown migrations from North to South America

An international research team has used genome-wide ancient DNA data to revise Central and South American history. Their analysis of DNA from 49 individuals spanning about 10,000 years in Belize, Brazil, the Central Andes, and southern South America has concluded… Continue Reading →

Harvesting renewable energy from the sun and outer space at the same time

Scientists at Stanford University have demonstrated for the first time that heat from the sun and coldness from outer space can be collected simultaneously with a single device. Their research, published November 8 in the journal Joule, suggests that devices… Continue Reading →

Watch a 3D-engineered human heart tissue beat

Researchers have developed a way to grow human heart tissue that can serve as a model for the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. The tissue, derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPCSs), beats, expresses genes,… Continue Reading →

Mark your calendar: All infectious diseases are seasonal

Most of us are aware of the seasonal cycle of influenza outbreaks, which for Americans peak in the winter. In a new paper, Micaela Martinez, PhD, a scientist at the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, makes a case that… Continue Reading →

Brain signature of depressed mood unveiled in new study

Most of us have had moments when we're feeling down — maybe we can't stop thinking about our worst mistakes, or our most embarrassing memories — but for some, these poor mood states can be relentless and even debilitating. Now,… Continue Reading →

History of early settlement and survival in Andean highlands revealed by ancient genomes

A multi-center study of the genetic remains of people who settled thousands of years ago in the Andes Mountains of South America reveals a complex picture of human adaptation from early settlement, to a split about 9,000 years ago between… Continue Reading →

Decline in shorebirds linked to climate change, experts warn

Climate change could be responsible for a substantial decline in populations of shorebirds, say researchers from the Milner Centre for Evolution at the University of Bath, following a study published in Science analysing population data over a period of 70… Continue Reading →

Extending the life of low-cost, compact, lightweight batteries

Metal-air batteries are one of the lightest and most compact types of batteries available, but they can have a major limitation: When not in use, they degrade quickly, as corrosion eats away at their metal electrodes. Now, MIT researchers have… Continue Reading →

Can’t sleep? Fruit flies and energy drinks offer new clues

Sleep is an essential behavioral state in animals ranging from invertebrates to humans. It is critical for immune function, stable metabolism, brain repair, learning and memory. Over the course of a lifetime, more than 30 percent of people will experience… Continue Reading →

See-through film rejects 70 percent of incoming solar heat

To battle the summer heat, office and residential buildings tend to crank up the air conditioning, sending energy bills soaring. Indeed, it's estimated that air conditioners use about 6 percent of all the electricity produced in the United States, at… Continue Reading →

DNA of world’s oldest natural mummy unlocks secrets of Ice Age tribes in the Americas

A legal battle over a 10,600 year old ancient skeleton — called the 'Spirit Cave Mummy' — has ended after advanced DNA sequencing found it was related to a Native American tribe. The revelation has been published in Science today… Continue Reading →

Patients with untreated hearing loss incur higher health care costs over time

Older adults with untreated hearing loss incur substantially higher total health care costs compared to those who don't have hearing loss — an average of 46 percent, totaling $22,434 per person over a decade, according to a new study led… Continue Reading →

Brain activity pattern may be early sign of schizophrenia

Schizophrenia, a brain disorder that produces hallucinations, delusions, and cognitive impairments, usually strikes during adolescence or young adulthood. While some signs can suggest that a person is at high risk for developing the disorder, there is no way to definitively… Continue Reading →

Replaying the tape of life: Is it possible?

How predictable is evolution? The answer has long been debated by biologists grappling with the extent to which history affects the repeatability of evolution. A review published in the Nov. 9 issue of Science explores the complexity of evolution's predictability… Continue Reading →

Healing kidneys with nanotechnology

Each year, there are some 13.3 million new cases of acute kidney injury (AKI), a serious affliction. Formerly known as acute renal failure, the ailment produces a rapid buildup of nitrogenous wastes and decreases urine output, usually within hours or… Continue Reading →

Genetic ‘whodunnit’ for cancer gene solved

Long thought to suppress cancer by slowing cellular metabolism, the protein complex AMPK also seemed to help some tumors grow, confounding researchers. Now, Salk Institute researchers have solved the long-standing mystery around why AMPK can both hinder and help cancer…. Continue Reading →

A burst of ‘synchronous’ light

Excited photo-emitters can cooperate and radiate simultaneously, a phenomenon called superfluorescence. Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. This discovery could… Continue Reading →

Bees on the brink

For bees, being social is everything. Whether it's foraging for food, caring for the young, using their bodies to generate heat or to fan the nest, or building and repairing nests, a bee colony does just about everything as a… Continue Reading →

Self-assembling protein filaments designed and built from scratch

For the first time, scientists have created, from scratch, self-assembling protein filaments. These were constructed from identical protein subunits that snap together spontaneously to form long, helical, thread-like structures. In the natural world, protein filaments are essential components of several… Continue Reading →

Ancient child’s tooth reveals picture of Alaska’s early inhabitants

Research on a newly rediscovered 9,000-year-old child's tooth has reshaped our understanding of Alaska's ancient people, their genetic background and their diets. The tooth is only the third known remnant of a population of early migrants known as Ancient Beringians…. Continue Reading →

New tool to predict which plants will become invasive

Around the world, over 13,000 plant species have embedded themselves in new environments — some of them integrate with the native plants, but others spread aggressively. Understanding why some plants become invasive, while others do not is critical to preserving… Continue Reading →

Automated detection of sleep states from olfactory brain waves

Scientists have developed a completely automated technique for real-time detection of sleep/wake states in freely moving mice. Conducted by Karim Benchenane, Sophie Bagur and colleagues at the National Centre for Scientific Research in Paris, the study, publishing on November 8… Continue Reading →

Culture may explain why brains have become bigger

A theory called the cultural brain hypothesis could explain extraordinary increases in brain size in humans and other animals over the last few million years, according to a study published in PLOS Computational Biology by Michael Muthukrishna of the London… Continue Reading →

Report finds inequity may slow progress in preventing child pneumonia and diarrhea deaths

Globally, pneumonia and diarrhea together led to nearly one of every four deaths that occurred in children under five years of age in 2016. The 2018 Pneumonia and Diarrhea Progress Report — released ahead of the 10th annual World Pneumonia… Continue Reading →

What could cause the Mississippi Bight to become hypoxic?

Coastal regions with low dissolved oxygen (known as hypoxia) can lead to poor water quality and harm regional fisheries. These areas of low dissolved oxygen are expanding and expected to continue growing in coming years due to human impacts on… Continue Reading →

Skin ages when the main cells in the dermis lose their identity and function

With age, our tissues lose their function and capacity to regenerate after being damaged. A study published today in Cell by scientists at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and the Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico of the… Continue Reading →

Unlocking the secrets of metal-insulator transitions

By using an x-ray technique available at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), scientists found that the metal-insulator transition in the correlated material magnetite is a two-step process. The researchers from the University of California Davis published their paper… Continue Reading →

Yellowstone streams recovering thanks to wolf reintroduction

In the first study of its kind, research by Oregon State University scientists shows that the return of large terrestrial carnivores can lead to improved stream structure and function. The findings, published today in Ecohydrology, are important because they highlight… Continue Reading →

Unique study shows how bats maneuver

For the first time, researchers have succeeded in directly measuring the aerodynamics of flying animals as they manoeuvre in the air. Previously, the upstroke of the wings was considered relatively insignificant compared to the powerful downstroke but, in a new… Continue Reading →

Aging a flock of stars in the Wild Duck Cluster

Do star clusters harbor many generations of stars or just one? Scientists have long searched for an answer and, thanks to the University of Arizona's MMT telescope, found one in the Wild Duck Cluster, where stars spin at different speeds,… Continue Reading →

Pork, Soy and Corn Groups Unite for Sustainability Research

The National Pork Board (NPB), United Soybean Board (USB) and National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) are joining together on a sustainability research platform that will benefit all three organizations and their producers. The CEOs and farmer leaders of all three… Continue Reading →

Can stimulating the brain treat chronic pain?

For the first time, researchers at the UNC School of Medicine showed they could target one brain region with a weak alternating current of electricity, enhance the naturally occurring brain rhythms of that region, and significantly decrease symptoms associated with… Continue Reading →

Link between autoimmune, heart disease explained in mice

People with autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease, even though none of these conditions seem to target the cardiovascular system directly. Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine… Continue Reading →

Transforming carbon dioxide into industrial fuels

Imagine a day when — rather than being spewed into the atmosphere — the gases coming from power plants and heavy industry are instead captured and fed into catalytic reactors that chemically transform greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into industrial… Continue Reading →

Rainforest destruction from gold mining hits all-time high in Peru

Small-scale gold mining has destroyed more than 170,000 acres of primary rainforest in the Peruvian Amazon in the past five years, according to a new analysis by scientists at Wake Forest University's Center for Amazonian Scientific Innovation (CINCIA). That's an… Continue Reading →

Brain learns to recognize familiar faces regardless of where they are in the visual field

A Dartmouth study finds that recognition of faces varies by where they appear in the visual field and this variability is reduced by learning familiar faces through social interactions. These biases are stable and idiosyncratic. More importantly, these biases are… Continue Reading →

The secret behind coral reef diversity? Time, lots of time

Strap on a diving mask and fins and slip under the crystal-clear water near a coral reef in Indonesia, Papua-New Guinea or the Philippines, and you'll immediately see why divers and snorkelers from across the world flock to the area…. Continue Reading →

A newly discovered, naturally low-caffeine tea plant

Tea drinkers who seek the popular beverage's soothing flavor without its explosive caffeine jolt could soon have a new, naturally low-caffeine option. In a study appearing in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, scientists report that a recently discovered… Continue Reading →

Orangutans spontaneously bend straight wires into hooks to fish for food

The bending of a hook into wire to fish for the handle of a basket is surprisingly challenging for young children under eight years of age. Now cognitive biologists and comparative psychologists from the University of Vienna, the University of… Continue Reading →

Sensory neurons can be used to discover therapies for ALS

Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have shown that mutations in specific genes that destroy motor neurons and thereby cause the devastating effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis — also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease — also attack sensory… Continue Reading →

Traditional glaucoma test can miss severity of disease

The most common tests for glaucoma can underestimate the severity of the condition by not detecting the presence of central vision loss, according to a new Columbia University study. The study, published Nov. 8 in JAMA Ophthalmology, found that administering… Continue Reading →

Factors affecting turbulence scaling

Fluids exhibiting scaling behaviour can be found in diverse physical phenomena occurring both in the laboratory and in real-world conditions. For instance, they occur at the critical point when a liquid becomes a vapour, at the phase transition of superfluids,… Continue Reading →

Pore size alone does not matter when biological nanopores act as sugar chain biosensors

Protein nanopores are present in cell membranes and act as biological gateways. This means that they can also be used for the detection of specific bioactive molecular chains, like sugar chains, such as molecules from the glycosaminoglycan family. The latter… Continue Reading →

New marker provides insights into the development of type 2 diabetes

Small chemical changes in the DNA building blocks, which may be influenceable by lifestyle factors, can reduce the amount of IGFBP2. A DIfE / DZD research team has now reported in the journal Diabetes that these epigenetic changes increase the… Continue Reading →

Species’ longevity depends on brain cell numbers

Scientists have thought that the main determinant of maximal longevity in warm-blooded animals — which varies from as little as 2 to as many as 211 years — is a species' metabolic rate, which is inversely related to body size…. Continue Reading →

A major role for a small organ in the immune response during pregnancy

The immune system of a pregnant woman is altered during pregnancy, but not in the way previously believed, according to results from a study at Linköping University, Sweden. This study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, shows… Continue Reading →

Scientists opening up access to science through DIY equipment

Scientists at the University of Sussex have developed a piece of hardware to demonstrate how our brains function, as part of a growing range of equipment which uses DIY and 3D printable models to open up access to science education…. Continue Reading →

Blue light can reduce blood pressure, study suggests

Exposure to blue light decreases blood pressure, reducing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, a new study from the University of Surrey and Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf in collaboration with Philips reports. During this study, published in the European Journal… Continue Reading →

Metallic nanocatalysts imitate the structure of enzymes

An international team of researchers has transferred certain structural characteristics of natural enzymes, which ensure particularly high catalytic activity, to metallic nanoparticles. The desired chemical reaction thus did not take place at the particle surface as usual, but in channels… Continue Reading →

Some of retina’s light-sensing cells may have ancient roots

Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine say they have identified what may be an ancient light-sensing mechanism in modern mouse retinal cells. "Some evolutionary biologists have proposed that ancient organisms may have had two separate light-response mechanisms that coexisted in a… Continue Reading →

Rushing kids to specialize in one sport may not be best path to success

It may be tempting for parents or coaches to urge young children to specialize in one sport early on to help maximize their chance at making it to the big leagues, but that might not be the best path to… Continue Reading →

New ranking method could help hotels to maximize their revenue

Researchers from the University of Portsmouth have devised a new method to rank hotels more accurately. The new method will help hotel operators to maximise their revenue by providing more information on the areas that customers care about. Customers also… Continue Reading →

Air pollution is associated with increased emergency department visits for heart and lung disease

Outdoor air pollution is a major health threat worldwide. New research by George Mason University found that exposure to certain air pollutants is linked to increased emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Mason Assistant Professor of Global… Continue Reading →

What do metastatic cancer cells have in common with sharks?

When animal predators search for sparsely distributed food, they maximize their chances of success by adopting a special movement pattern composed of many small steps interspersed with infrequent but long strides towards new hunting grounds. These so-called "Lévy walks" have… Continue Reading →

Biomimetics: The chemical tricks of our blood

The job of hemoglobin in our body seems to be quite simple: It transports oxygen molecules through our bloodstream. But this only works so well because the hemoglobin molecule is extremely complex. The same applies to chlorophyll, which converts sunlight… Continue Reading →

Novel strategy appears to protect retina when disease reduces oxygen

An enzyme known to help our liver get rid of ammonia also appears to be good at protecting our retina, scientists report. Our retina, which captures light and converts it into neural signals that go to the brain so we… Continue Reading →

Florida monarch butterfly populations have dropped 80 percent since 2005

A 37-year survey of monarch populations in North Central Florida shows that caterpillars and butterflies have been declining since 1985 and have dropped by 80 percent since 2005. This decrease parallels monarchs' dwindling numbers in their overwintering grounds in Mexico,… Continue Reading →

Study calls for sugar tax

People who drink sugary beverages are more likely to eat fast food and confectionery and less likely to make healthy dietary choices, University of Otago research has found. Dr Kirsten Robertson, of the New Zealand university's Department of Marketing, says… Continue Reading →

Cell behavior, once shrouded in mystery, is revealed in new light

A cell's behavior is as mysterious as a teenager's mood swings. However, University of Missouri researchers are one step closer to understanding cell behavior, with the help of a specialized microscope. Previously, in order to study cell membranes, researchers would… Continue Reading →

Biodiversity draws the ecotourism crowd

Nature — if you support it, ecotourists will come. Managed wisely, both can win. The balancing act of protecting and fostering biodiversity with hordes of tourists in pristine nature parks is a global challenge. Researchers at Michigan State University (MSU)… Continue Reading →

Combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy effective in Phase II leukemia study

A combination of the standard-of-care chemotherapy drug known as azacitidine, with nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, demonstrated an encouraging response rate and overall survival in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) according to findings from a Phase… Continue Reading →

Body clock researchers prevent liver cancer growth in mice

The body's internal clock could play a critical role in the fight against certain types of liver cancer, according to a preclinical study by scientists from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth). The results were published… Continue Reading →

Beyond Damaging Crops, Dicamba is Dividing Communities

John and Lisa Zuhlke used to get along well with their neighbor of 10 years. Before they began raising more than 350 varieties of heirloom vegetables and honey on their five-acre operation in Aurora, South Dakota, two years ago, they… Continue Reading →

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